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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 8-K

 

CURRENT REPORT

PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE

SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): July 6, 2022

 

HILL INTERNATIONAL, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Charter)

 

Delaware   001-33961   20-0953973

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation)

 

(Commission

File Number)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

 

One Commerce Square

2005 Market Street, 17th Floor

Philadelphia, PA

  19103
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (215) 309-7700

 

(Former name or former address, if changed since last report)

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:

 

¨ Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

 

¨ Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

 

¨ Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

 

¨ Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 HIL New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter). ¨

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

 

 

 

 

Item 5.03 Amendments to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

 

At the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders of Hill International, Inc. (the “Company”) held on July 6, 2022 (the “Annual Meeting”), the Company’s stockholders approved a proposal to amend the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), to declassify the Company’s board of directors (the “Board of Directors”) and to provide for the annual election of all directors commencing with the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Declassification Amendment”). The Declassification Amendment is described in further detail in the Company’s definitive proxy statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting filed on June 1, 2022 (the “Definitive Proxy Statement”). The Board of Directors previously approved the Declassification Amendment, subject to receipt of stockholder approval at the 2022 Annual Meeting.

 

The Declassification Amendment became effective upon the filing of a Certificate of Amendment (the “Certificate of Amendment”) to the Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on July 8, 2022. Following the filing of the Certificate of Amendment, on July 11, 2022, the Company filed a Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Restated Certificate”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware to integrate the Declassification Amendment and previous amendments to the Certificate of Incorporation into a single document.

 

As previously disclosed in the Definitive Proxy Statement, in connection with the approval of the Declassification Amendment, the Board of Directors approved conforming changes to the Company’s Amended and Restated Bylaws, which changes became effective upon the filing of the Declassification Amendment.

 

The foregoing descriptions are summaries only and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the full text of the Certificate of Amendment, Restated Certificate and Amended and Restated Bylaws, copies of which are filed as Exhibits 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3, respectively, to this Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated into this Item 5.03 by reference.

 

Item 5.07 Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders

 

On July 6, 2022, the Company held its Annual Meeting. Set forth below are the proposals voted upon at the Annual Meeting and the final voting results.

 

As of the close of business on May 23, 2022, the record date for the Annual Meeting, 57,153,494 shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, were outstanding and entitled to vote. 47,815,188 shares of Common Stock were voted in person or by proxy at the Annual Meeting, representing 83.7% percent of the shares entitled to be voted. For Proposal 1, the votes cast “for” the Proposal must be at least a majority of the shares outstanding in order for the Proposal to pass. For Proposal 2, nominees receiving a majority of votes cast “for” their election will be elected as a director; the votes cast “for” a nominee must exceed the votes cast “withheld” for such nominee. For Proposals 3 and 4, the votes cast “for” such proposal must exceed the votes cast “against” such proposal in order for the proposal to pass.

 

Proposal 1 – Approval of Amendments to our Certificate of Incorporation to Declassify the Board of Directors. The Company’s stockholders approved the amendment of our Certificate of Incorporation to declassify the Board of Directors.

 

For   Against   Abstain   Broker
Non-Votes
 
38,562,411   990,713   32,157   8,229,907 

 

Proposal 2 - Election of Directors. The Company’s stockholders elected David Sgro, Grant G. McCullagh and Sue Steele to serve on the Board of Directors until the Company’s Annual Meeting of Stockholders in 2023, and until their successors have been duly elected and qualified.

 

Director  For   Withhold   Broker
Non-Votes
 
David Sgro  37,521,039   2,064,242   8,229,907 
Grant G. McCullagh  33,992,805   5,592,476   8,229,907 
Sue Steele  34,227,524   5,537,757   8,229,907 

 

Proposal 3 - Advisory Vote on Named Executive Officer Compensation. The Company’s stockholders approved, on an advisory basis, the compensation paid to named executive officers.

 

For   Against   Abstain   Broker
Non-Votes
 
35,329,567   4,247,942   7,772   8,229,907 

 

 

Proposal 4 - Ratification of the Appointment of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm. The Company’s stockholders approved the ratification of the appointment of Grant Thornton LLP as the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm for 2022.

 

For   Against   Abstain   Broker
Non-Votes
 
46,902,325   899,593   13,270   0 

 

Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits

 

(d) Exhibits

 

Exhibit
Number
  Description
3.1   Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Hill International, Inc.
3.2   Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Hill International, Inc.
3.3   Amended and Restated By-laws of Hill International, Inc.
104   Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document)

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

 

  HILL INTERNATIONAL, INC.
   
  By: /s/ William H. Dengler, Jr.
  Name: William H. Dengler, Jr.
Dated: July 12, 2022 Title: Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer

 

 

Exhibit 3.1

 

CERTIFICATE OF SECOND AMENDMENT OF

AMENDED AND RESTATED

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

OF

HILL INTERNATIONAL, INC.

 

(Pursuant to Section 242 of the

General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware)

 

Hill International, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under and by virtue of the provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “General Corporation Law”), does hereby certify as follows:

 

1.             The name of this corporation is Hill International, Inc. (the “Corporation”). This Corporation was originally incorporated pursuant to the General Corporation Law on April 2, 2004 under the name Arpeggio Acquisition Corporation.

 

2.             The Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of this Corporation was filed with the Delaware Secretary of State on June 28, 2006.

 

3.             This Certificate of Second Amendment amends the provisions of the Corporation’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as previously amended, and was duly adopted in accordance with Section 242 of the General Corporation Law and approved by the holders of the requisite number of shares of this Corporation in accordance with Section 222 of the General Corporation Law.

 

4.             Article SIXTH of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation is hereby amended and restated in its entirety as follows:

 

SIXTH: The number of directors that constitutes the Board of Directors shall be fixed from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors in accordance with the Bylaws, and shall consist of not less than three or more than eleven directors. Directors shall be elected at each annual meeting of stockholders, and each director elected shall hold office until such director’s successor has been elected and qualified, subject, however, to earlier death, resignation or removal from office. The term of each director serving as of and immediately following the date of the 2022 annual meeting of stockholders shall expire at the 2023 annual meeting of stockholders, notwithstanding that such director may have been elected for a term that extended beyond the date of the 2022 annual meeting of stockholders. Except as the GCL may otherwise require, in the interim between annual meetings of stockholders or special meetings of stockholders called for the election of directors and/or the removal of one or more directors and the filling of any vacancy in that connection, newly created directorships and any vacancies in the Board of Directors, including unfilled vacancies resulting from the removal of directors, may be filled by the vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, although less than a quorum (as defined in the Corporation’s Bylaws), or by the sole remaining director. All directors shall hold office until the expiration of their respective terms of office and until their successors shall have been elected and qualified. A director elected to fill a vacancy resulting from the death, resignation or removal of a director shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the director whose death, resignation or removal shall have created such vacancy and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified. If the number of directors is hereafter changed, no decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

 

 

 

 

5.             Except as expressly set forth herein, the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as previously amended, shall continue in full force and effect.

 

[Signature Page Follows]

 

 

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, this Certificate of Second Amendment of the Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation has been executed by a duly authorized officer of this Corporation on this 7th day of July, 2022.

 

  HILL INTERNATIONAL, INC.
     
  By: /s/ William H. Dengler, Jr.
    William H. Dengler, Jr.
    Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 3.2

 

RESTATED

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

OF

HILL INTERNATIONAL, INC.

 

(Pursuant to Section 245 of the

Delaware General Corporation Law)

 

Hill International, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under and by virtue of the provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “GCL”), in accordance with the provisions of Section 245 of the GCL, does hereby certify as follows:

 

1.            The name of this corporation is Hill International, Inc. (the “Corporation”). The Corporation was originally incorporated under the name Arpeggio Acquisition Corporation and the original Certificate of Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation was filed in the office of the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware on April 2, 2004 (the “Original Certificate”).

 

2.            The Original Certificate was amended and restated by the filing of an Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation on June 28, 2006 (the “Amended and Restated Certificate”).

 

3.            This Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation only restates and integrates and does not further amend the provisions of the Amended and Restated Certificate as theretofore amended or supplemented, and there is no discrepancy between the provisions of the Amended and Restated Certificate as theretofore amended or supplemented and the provisions of this Restated Certificate of Incorporation. This Restated Certificate of Incorporation was duly adopted in accordance with the provisions of Section 245 of the GCL.

 

4.            The Amended and Restated Certificate as theretofore amended or supplemented is hereby restated and integrated to read in its entirety as follows:

 

FIRST: The name of the corporation is “Hill International, Inc.” (hereinafter sometimes referred to as the “Corporation”).

 

SECOND: The registered office of the Corporation is to be located at 251 Little Falls Drive, New Castle County, Wilmington, Delaware, 19808. The name of its registered agent at that address is Corporation Service Company.

 

THIRD: The purpose of the Corporation shall be to engage in any lawful act or activity for which corporations may be organized under the GCL.

 

FOURTH: The total number of shares of all classes of capital stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 101,000,000 of which 100,000,000 shares shall be Common Stock of the par value of $.0001 per share and 1,000,000 shares shall be Preferred Stock of the par value of $.0001 per share.

 

 

 

 

A. Preferred Stock. The Board of Directors is expressly granted authority to issue shares of the Preferred Stock, in one or more series, and to fix for each such series such voting powers, full or limited, and such designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights and such qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof as shall be stated and expressed in the resolution or resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors providing for the issue of such series (a “Preferred Stock Designation”) and as may be permitted by the GCL. The number of authorized shares of Preferred Stock may be increased or decreased (but not below the number of shares thereof then outstanding) by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of all of the then outstanding shares of the capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors (the “Voting Stock”), voting together as a single class, without a separate vote of the holders of the Preferred Stock, or any series thereof, unless a vote of any such holders is required pursuant to any Preferred Stock Designation.

 

B. Common Stock. Except as otherwise required by law or as otherwise provided in any Preferred Stock Designation, the holders of the Common Stock shall exclusively possess all voting power and each share of Common Stock shall have one vote.

 

FIFTH: The number of directors that constitutes the Board of Directors shall be fixed from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors in accordance with the Bylaws, and shall consist of not less than three or more than eleven directors. Directors shall be elected at each annual meeting of stockholders, and each director elected shall hold office until such director’s successor has been elected and qualified, subject, however, to earlier death, resignation or removal from office. The term of each director serving as of and immediately following the date of the 2022 annual meeting of stockholders shall expire at the 2023 annual meeting of stockholders, notwithstanding that such director may have been elected for a term that extended beyond the date of the 2022 annual meeting of stockholders. Except as the GCL may otherwise require, in the interim between annual meetings of stockholders or special meetings of stockholders called for the election of directors and/or the removal of one or more directors and the filling of any vacancy in that connection, newly created directorships and any vacancies in the Board of Directors, including unfilled vacancies resulting from the removal of directors, may be filled by the vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, although less than a quorum (as defined in the Corporation’s Bylaws), or by the sole remaining director. All directors shall hold office until the expiration of their respective terms of office and until their successors shall have been elected and qualified. A director elected to fill a vacancy resulting from the death, resignation or removal of a director shall serve for the remainder of the full term of the director whose death, resignation or removal shall have created such vacancy and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified. If the number of directors is hereafter changed, no decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

 

SIXTH: The following provisions are inserted for the management of the business and for the conduct of the affairs of the Corporation, and for further definition, limitation and regulation of the powers of the Corporation and of its directors and stockholders:

 

A. Election of directors need not be by ballot unless the by-laws of the Corporation so provide.

 

B. The Board of Directors shall have the power, without the assent or vote of the stockholders, to make, alter, amend, change, add to or repeal the by-laws of the Corporation as provided in the by-laws of the Corporation.

 

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C. The directors in their discretion may submit any contract or act for approval or ratification at any annual meeting of the stockholders or at any meeting of the stockholders called for the purpose of considering any such act or contract, and any contract or act that shall be approved or be ratified by the vote of the holders of a majority of the stock of the Corporation which is represented in person or by proxy at such meeting and entitled to vote thereat (provided that a lawful quorum of stockholders be there represented in person or by proxy) shall be as valid and binding upon the Corporation and upon all the stockholders as though it had been approved or ratified by every stockholder of the Corporation, whether or not the contract or act would otherwise be open to legal attack because of directors’ interests, or for any other reason.

 

D. In addition to the powers and authorities hereinbefore or by statute expressly conferred upon them, the directors are hereby empowered to exercise all such powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the Corporation; subject, nevertheless, to the provisions of the statutes of Delaware, of this Certificate of Incorporation, and to any by-laws from time to time made by the stockholders; provided, however, that no by-law so made shall invalidate any prior act of the directors which would have been valid if such by-law had not been made.

 

SEVENTH: A. A director of the Corporation shall not be personally liable to the Corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the GCL, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. If the GCL is amended to authorize corporate action further eliminating or limiting the personal liability of directors, then the liability of a director of the Corporation shall be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by the GCL, as so amended. Any repeal or modification of this paragraph A by the stockholders of the Corporation shall not adversely affect any right or protection of a director of the Corporation with respect to events occurring prior to the time of such repeal or modification.

 

B. The Corporation, to the full extent permitted by Section 145 of the GCL, as amended from time to time, shall indemnify all persons whom it may indemnify pursuant thereto. Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by an officer or director in defending any civil, criminal, administrative, or investigative action, suit or proceeding for which such officer or director may be entitled to indemnification hereunder shall be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that he is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized hereby.

 

EIGHTH : Whenever a compromise or arrangement is proposed between this Corporation and its creditors or any class of them and/or between this Corporation and its stockholders or any class of them, any court of equitable jurisdiction within the State of Delaware may, on the application in a summary way of this Corporation or of any creditor or stockholder thereof or on the application of any receiver or receivers appointed for this Corporation under Section 291 of Title 8 of the Delaware Code or on the application of trustees in dissolution or of any receiver or receivers appointed for this Corporation under Section 279 of Title 8 of the Delaware Code order a meeting of the creditors or class of creditors, and/or of the stockholders or class of stockholders of this Corporation, as the case may be, to be summoned in such manner as the said court directs. If a majority in number representing three fourths in value of the creditors or class of creditors, and/or of the stockholders or class of stockholders of this Corporation, as the case may be, agree to any compromise or arrangement and to any reorganization of this Corporation as a consequence of such compromise or arrangement, the said compromise or arrangement and the said reorganization shall, if sanctioned by the court to which the said application has been made, be binding on all the creditors or class of creditors, and/or on all the stockholders or class of stockholders, of this Corporation, as the case may be, and also on this Corporation.

 

[Signature Page Follows]

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Corporation has caused this Restated Certificate of Incorporation to be signed on its behalf by its Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer, this 8th day of July, 2022.

 

  HILL INTERNATIONAL, INC.
     
  By: /s/ William H. Dengler, Jr.
    William H. Dengler, Jr.
    Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer

 

 

Exhibit 3.3

 

BYLAWS

 

OF

 

HILL INTERNATIONAL, INC.

 

(as Amended and Restated to July 8, 2022)

 

ARTICLE I

 

OFFICES

 

1.1            Registered Office. The registered office of Hill International, Inc. (the “Corporation”) in the State of Delaware shall be established and maintained at Corporation Service Company, 2711 Centerville Road, Suite 400, City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, Delaware 19808 and Corporation Service Company shall be the registered agent of the Corporation in charge thereof.

 

1.2            Other Offices. The Corporation may also have offices at such other places both within and without the State of Delaware as the board of directors of the Corporation (the “Board of Directors”) may from time to time determine or the business of the Corporation may require.

 

ARTICLE II

 

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

 

2.1            Place of Meetings. All meetings of the stockholders shall be held at such time and place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof.

 

2.2            Annual Meetings. The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held on such date and at such time as may be fixed by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting, for the purpose of electing directors and for the transaction of only such other business as is properly brought before the meeting in accordance with these Bylaws (the “Bylaws”).

 

Written notice of an annual meeting stating the place, date and hour of the meeting, shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the annual meeting.

 

To be properly brought before the annual meeting, business must be either (i) specified in the notice of annual meeting (or any supplement or amendment thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, (ii) otherwise brought before the annual meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the annual meeting by a stockholder (a) who is a stockholder of the Corporation at the time the notice of annual meeting is delivered, (b) is entitled to vote at the annual meeting, and (c) complies with notice procedures set forth in this Section 2.2. In addition, any proposal of business must be a proper matter for stockholder action. Irrespective of whether a matter is already the subject of any notice to stockholders, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation. A stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received, at the principal executive offices of the Corporation (i) not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days in advance of the anniversary of the previous year’s annual meeting date (the “Anniversary Date”) provided that the annual meeting is held on a day which is not more than thirty (30) days in advance of the Anniversary Date or not later than seventy (70) days after the Anniversary Date, and (ii) with respect to any other annual meeting of stockholders, by the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the date of public disclosure of the date of such meeting whether by press release, filing with the SEC or other manner reasonably calculated to inform stockholders.

 

 

 

 

A stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth (a) as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting (i) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting, and (ii) any material interest of the stockholder in such business, and (b) as to the stockholder giving the notice (i) the name and record address of the stockholder, (ii) the class, series and number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation which are beneficially owned by the stockholder and (iii) any other information relating to the stockholder and beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is being made, required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for the proposal and pursuant to and in accordance with Section 14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at the annual meeting except in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.2. The officer of the Corporation presiding at an annual meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the annual meeting that business was not properly brought before the annual meeting in accordance with the provisions of this Section 2.2, and if such officer should so determine, such officer shall so declare to the annual meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted. The requirements of this Section 2.2 shall apply to any business to be brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder whether such business is to be included in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act or presented to stockholders by means of an independently financed proxy solicitation. The requirements of this Section 2.2 are included to provide the Corporation notice of a stockholder’s intention to bring business before an annual meeting and shall in no event be construed as imposing upon any stockholder the requirement to seek approval from the Corporation as a condition precedent to bringing any such business at an annual meeting.

 

2.3            Special Meetings. Special meetings of the stockholders, for any purpose or purposes, unless otherwise prescribed by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), may only be called by a majority of the entire Board of Directors, or the Chief Executive Officer or the Chairman, and shall be called by the Secretary at the request in writing of stockholders owning not less than twenty-five percent (25%) of the voting power of all outstanding shares of the Corporation’s common stock which would be entitled to vote on the business transacted thereat. Such request shall state the purpose or purposes of the proposed meeting.

 

Unless otherwise provided by law, written notice of a special meeting of stockholders, stating the time, place and purpose or purposes thereof, shall be given by the Company to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting, not less than ten (10) or more than sixty (60) days before the date fixed for the meeting. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to the purposes stated in the notice.

 

2.4            Quorum. The holders of a majority of the capital stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business except as otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the holders of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast by the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, in the manner provided by Section 2.10, until a quorum shall be present or represented. A quorum, once established, shall not be broken by the subsequent withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum.

 

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2.5            Organization. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall act as chairman of meetings of the stockholders. The Board of Directors may designate any other officer or director of the Corporation to act as chairman of any meeting in the absence of the Chairman of the Board of Directors and the Board of Directors may further provide for determining who shall act as chairman of any meeting of stockholders in the absence of the Chairman of the Board of Directors and such designee. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of any meeting of the stockholders shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (a) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (b) the determination of when the polls shall open and close for any given matter to be voted on at the meeting; (c) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (d) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall determine; (e) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (f) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. The Secretary of the Corporation shall act as secretary of all meetings of the stockholders, but in the absence of the Secretary the presiding officer may appoint any other person to act as secretary of any meeting.

 

2.6            Voting. Unless otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any question (other than the election of directors) brought before any meeting of stockholders shall be decided by the vote of the holders of a majority of the stock represented and entitled to vote thereat. Each stockholder represented at a meeting of stockholders shall be entitled to cast one vote for each share of the capital stock entitled to vote thereat held by such stockholder, unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders or to express consent or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize any person or persons to act for him by proxy. All proxies shall be executed in writing and shall be filed with the Secretary of the Corporation not later than the day on which exercised. No proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three (3) years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. The Board of Directors, in its discretion, or the officer of the Corporation presiding at a meeting of stockholders, in his discretion, may require that any votes cast at such meeting shall be cast by written ballot.

 

Each director to be elected by stockholders shall be elected by the vote of the majority of the votes cast at any meeting for the election of directors at which a quorum is present. For purposes of this paragraph, a majority of votes cast shall mean that the number of shares voted "for" a director's election exceeds 50% of the number of votes cast with respect to that director's election. Votes cast shall include votes to withhold authority in each case and exclude abstentions with respect to that director's election. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if an election of directors is contested, then directors shall be elected by the vote of a plurality of the votes cast at any meeting for the election of directors at which a quorum is present. For purposes of this bylaw, a contested election shall mean any election of directors in which, as of the record date, the Company has received notice that the number of nominees for election as directors exceeds the number of directors to be elected.

 

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2.7            Action of Shareholders Without Meeting. Unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders, or any action which may be taken at any annual or special meeting of such stockholders, may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted, and shall be delivered to the Corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the Corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the Corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. Prompt notice of the taking of the corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous written consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in writing.

 

2.8            Voting List. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder.

 

Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the election, either at a place within the city, town or village where the election is to be held, which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not specified, at the place where said meeting is to be held. The list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of election during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder of the Corporation who is present.

 

2.9            Stock Ledger. The stock ledger of the Corporation shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the stock ledger, the list required by Section 2.8 or the books of the Corporation, or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.

 

2.10            Adjournment. Any meeting of the stockholders, including one at which directors are to be elected, may be adjourned for such periods as the presiding officer of the meeting or the stockholders present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote shall direct and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the time and place are announced at the meeting at which adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, the Board of Directors shall fix a new record date for notice of the adjourned meeting and shall direct that notice of the adjourned meeting is given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting as of the record date fixed for notice of the adjourned meeting. In no event shall the public disclosure of an adjournment or postponement of any meeting of the stockholders commence a new notice time period (or extend any notice time period), except as otherwise provided in this Section 2.10.

 

2.11            Ratification. Any transaction questioned in any stockholders’ derivative suit, or any other suit to enforce alleged rights of the Corporation or any of its stockholders, on the ground of lack of authority, defective or irregular execution, adverse interest of any director, officer or stockholder, nondisclosure, miscomputation or the application of improper principles or practices of accounting may be approved, ratified and confirmed before or after judgment by the Board of Directors or by the holders of Common Stock and, if so approved, ratified or confirmed, shall have the same force and effect as if the questioned transaction had been originally duly authorized, and said approval, ratification or confirmation shall be binding upon the Corporation and all of its stockholders and shall constitute a bar to any claim or execution of any judgment in respect of such questioned transaction.

 

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2.12            Inspectors and Meetings of Stockholders. The Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer or any other officer designated by the Board or Directors, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, may, and shall if required by law, appoint one or more inspectors, who may be employees of the Corporation, to act at the meeting or any adjournment thereof and make a written report thereof. The Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer or any other officer designated by the Board of Directors may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting, the person presiding at the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. The inspectors shall (a) ascertain the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each, (b) determine the shares represented at the meeting, the existence of a quorum and the validity of proxies and ballots, (c) count all votes and ballots, (d) determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors and (e) certify their determination of the number of shares represented at the meeting and their count of all votes and ballots. The inspectors may appoint or retain other persons or entities to assist the inspectors in the performance of their duties. Unless otherwise provided by the Board of Directors, the date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced at the meeting. No ballot, proxies, votes or any revocation thereof or change thereto shall be accepted by the inspectors after the closing of the polls unless the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware upon application by a stockholder shall determine otherwise. In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots cast at any meeting of stockholders, the inspectors may consider such information as is permitted by applicable law. No person who is a candidate for director at an election may serve as an inspector at such election.

 

ARTICLE III

 

DIRECTORS

 

3.1            Powers; Number; Qualifications. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise provided by law or in the Certificate of Incorporation. The number of directors which shall constitute the Board of Directors shall be not less than three (3) nor more than eleven (11). The exact number of directors shall be fixed from time to time, within the limits specified in this Section 3.1 or in the Certificate of Incorporation, by the Board of Directors. Directors need not be stockholders of the Corporation.

 

No person shall qualify for service or serve as a director of the Corporation (i) unless such person is in compliance with all applicable laws and regulatory requirements to which the Corporation’s Directors may be subject in connection with such person’s service as a Director, (ii) if such person has been convicted in, or entered a plea of nolo contendere with respect to, a criminal proceeding involving fraud, misappropriation or other similar charge during the ten years preceding the date of election, or if such person has been found responsible for or admitted responsibility for fraud, misappropriation or other similar charge in any governmental investigation or proceeding or other civil judicial proceeding during the ten years preceding the date of election, or if such person has been found responsible for or admitted responsibility for any material violation of any foreign, federal or state securities law or federal commodities law during the ten years preceding the date of election, (iii) if such person has been convicted of, or entered a plea of nolo contendere with respect to, any felony, (iv) if such person serves on the board of directors of more than three other public companies, (v) if such person is a director, officer or holder of more than a five percent (5%) equity interest, directly or indirectly, in a business that competes, directly or indirectly, with the Corporation, (vi) if such person has made or makes any contribution or expenditure in connection with the election of any candidate for political office, including any contribution to any committee supporting such a candidate or to a political party, in any jurisdiction which results in the Corporation becoming ineligible to conduct its business or any portion thereof, or (vii) if such person has ever been the subject of a filing of personal bankruptcy in any jurisdiction, either voluntarily or involuntarily (and in the case of an involuntary filing, if such filing was not dismissed within 60 days) during the ten years preceding the date of election. In addition, if any communication (including any proxy soliciting materials) made by or on behalf of a Director Nominee (as defined in Section 3.3) includes a statement regarding such Director Nominee which at the time and in the light of the circumstances under which it is made, is false or misleading with respect to any material fact regarding such Director Nominee, or omits to state any material fact regarding such Director Nominee necessary in order to make the statements therein not false or misleading, such fact shall be grounds for disqualification from service.

 

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3.2            Election; Term of Office; Vacancies. Each director shall hold office until the next annual meeting of stockholders or until such director’s earlier resignation, disqualification, removal from office, death or incapacity. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors or from any other cause may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. A director elected to fill a vacancy or a newly created directorship shall hold office until the next annual meeting of stockholders, subject to the election and qualification of a successor and to such director’s earlier resignation, disqualification, removal from office, death or incapacity.

 

3.3            Nominations. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors of the Corporation at a meeting of stockholders of the Corporation may be made at such meeting (a) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, (b) by any committee or persons appointed by the Board of Directors, or (c) by any stockholder (a “Proposing Stockholder”) who (i) is a stockholder of the Corporation at the time the notice of such meeting is delivered, (ii) is entitled to vote for the election of directors at the meeting, and (iii) complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 3.3. Such nominations by the Proposing Stockholder shall be made pursuant to timely notice in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation even if such matter is already the subject of any notice to the stockholders. A stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received, at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one-hundred-twenty (120) days in advance of the Anniversary Date. If the annual meeting or any other meeting of the stockholders for the purpose of electing directors is not held thirty (30) days before or seventy (70) days after the Anniversary Date, to be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received, at the principal executive offices of the Corporation by the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the public disclosure of the date of such meeting.

 

Such stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth and include (a) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director (“Director Nominee”), (i) the name, age, business address and residence address of the Director Nominee, (ii) the principal occupation or employment of the Director Nominee, (iii) the class and number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation which are owned of record and beneficially by the Director Nominee, (iv) any other information relating to the Director Nominee that is required to be disclosed in solicitations for proxies for election of directors (even if an election contest or solicitation is not involved) or that is otherwise required to be disclosed under Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, and (v) the consent of the Director Nominee to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected and qualified and (b) as to the Proposing Stockholder (i) the name and record address of the Proposing Stockholder and of the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made, (ii) the class and number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation which are owned by the Proposing Stockholder and owned by the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made as of the date of the stockholder’s notice, (iii) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding with respect to such nomination between or among the Proposing Stockholder and any of its affiliates or associates, and any others (including their names) acting in concert with any of the foregoing, (iv) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any derivative or short positions, profit interests, options, hedging transactions, and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into as of the date of the stockholder’s notice by, or on behalf of, the Proposing Stockholder or any of its affiliates or associates, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, manage risk or benefit from share price changes, or increase or decrease the voting power of the Proposing Stockholder or any of its affiliates or associates with respect to shares of stock of the Corporation, (v) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding in connection with candidacy or service as a director of the Corporation between or among a Director Nominee and the Proposing Stockholder and any of its affiliates or associates, (vi) a representation that the Proposing Stockholder is a holder of record of shares of the Corporation entitled to vote at the meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the person or persons specified in the notice, (vii) a representation whether or not the Proposing Stockholder intends to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve the nomination and/or otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of the nomination, and (viii) a representation that the Director Nominee is not disqualified from service on the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 3.1 of the Bylaws. The Corporation shall require any Director Nominee to furnish timely such other information as reasonably required by the Corporation (i) to determine the eligibility of such Director Nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation or (ii) that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the competence and independence (or lack thereof) of such Director Nominee, including, but not limited to, completing the Corporation’s director and officer questionnaire. Failure to provide such information to the Corporation shall be grounds for disqualification from service.

 

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No person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth herein. The officer of the Corporation presiding at an annual meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the foregoing procedure, and if he should so determine, he shall so declare to the meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded. The requirements of this Section 3.3 shall apply to any nominations to be brought before a meeting by a stockholder whether such nominations are to be included in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to any applicable rule promulgated under the Exchange Act or presented to stockholders by means of an independently financed proxy solicitation. The requirements of this Section 3.3 are included to provide the Corporation notice of a stockholder’s intention to propose nominations before a meeting and shall in no event be construed as imposing upon any stockholder the requirement to seek approval from the Corporation as a condition precedent to propose such nominations before a meeting.

 

3.4            Meetings. The Board of Directors of the Corporation may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware. The first meeting of each newly elected Board of Directors shall be held immediately after and at the same place as the meeting of the stockholders at which it is elected and no notice of such meeting shall be necessary to the newly elected directors in order to legally constitute the meeting, provided a quorum shall be present. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors.

 

Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chief Executive Officer or a majority of the entire Board of Directors. Notice thereof stating the place, date and hour of the meeting shall be given to each director either by mail not less than forty-eight (48) hours before the date of the meeting, by telephone, facsimile, telegram or e-mail on twenty-four (24) hours notice, or on such shorter notice as the person or persons calling such meeting may deem necessary or appropriate in the circumstances.

 

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3.5            Quorum. Except as may be otherwise specifically provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, at all meetings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, a majority of the entire Board of Directors or such committee, as the case may be, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof, a majority of the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

 

3.6            Organization of Meetings. The Board of Directors shall elect one of its members to be Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall lead the Board of Directors in fulfilling its responsibilities as set forth in these Bylaws, including its responsibility to oversee the performance of the Corporation, and shall determine the agenda and perform all other duties and exercise all other powers which are or from time to time may be delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or in his or her absence, by the Chief Executive Officer, or in the absence of the Chairman of the Board of Directors and the Chief Executive Officer, or in the absence of the Chairman of the Board of Directors and the Chief Executive Officer by such other person as the Board of Directors may designate or the members present may select.

 

3.7            Actions of Board of Directors Without Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board of Directors or of such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing, and the writing or writings are filled with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee.

 

3.8            Removal of Directors by Stockholders. Notwithstanding any other provision of these Bylaws, any director may be removed from office, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the total voting power of the outstanding shares of the capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote in any annual election of directors.

 

3.9            Resignations. Any director may resign at any time by submitting his or her written resignation to the Board of Directors or Secretary of the Corporation. Such resignation shall take effect at the time of its receipt by the Corporation unless another time be fixed in the resignation, in which case it shall become effective at the time so fixed. The acceptance of a resignation shall not be required to make it effective.

 

If a nominee for director who is an incumbent director is not elected and no successor has been elected at such meeting, the director shall tender his or her resignation to the Board promptly following the certification of election results by the inspector of elections. The Nominating and Governance Committee shall make a recommendation to the Board as to whether to accept or reject the tendered resignation, or whether other action should be taken. The Board shall act on the tendered resignation, taking into account the Nominating and Governance Committee's recommendation, and publicly disclose (by press release, filing with the SEC or other manner reasonably calculated to inform stockholders) its decision regarding the tendered resignation and the rationale behind the decision within 90 days from the date of the certification of the election results. The Nominating and Governance Committee in making its recommendation, and the Board in making its decision, may each consider any factors or other information that it considers appropriate and relevant. The director who tenders his or her resignation shall not participate in the recommendation of the Nominating and Governance Committee or the decision of the Board with respect to his or her resignation. If such incumbent director's resignation is not accepted by the Board, such director shall continue to serve until the end of his or her term and until his or her successor is duly elected, or his or her earlier resignation or removal. If a director's resignation is accepted by the Board pursuant to this paragraph, or if a nominee for director is not elected and the nominee is not an incumbent director, then the Board, in its sole discretion, may fill any resulting vacancy pursuant to the provisions of Section 3.2 of this Article III or may decrease the size of the Board pursuant to the provisions of Section 3.1 of this Article III.

 

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3.10          Committees. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided by law and in the resolution of the Board of Directors establishing such committee, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to amending the Certificate of Incorporation, adopting an agreement of merger or consolidation, recommending to the stockholders the sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of the Corporation’s property and assets, recommending to the stockholders a dissolution of the Corporation or a revocation of a dissolution or amending the Bylaws of the Corporation; and, unless the resolution expressly so provides, no such committee shall have the power or authority to declare a dividend or to authorize the issuance of stock or to adopt a certificate of ownership and merger. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Board of Directors when required.

 

3.11          Compensation. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed amount (in cash or other form of consideration) for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors, service as a director and service as a chairperson of a special or standing committee. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no payment shall be made to any director if he or she is a party to any compensatory, payment or other financial agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation, or has received any such compensation or other payment from any person or entity other than the Corporation, in each case in connection with candidacy or service as a director of the Corporation; provided that agreements providing only for indemnification and/or reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses in connection with candidacy as a director (but not, for the avoidance of doubt, in connection with service as a director) and any pre-existing employment agreement a director has with his or her employer (not entered into in contemplation of the employer’s investment in the Corporation or such employee’s candidacy or service as a director), shall not render a director ineligible to receive compensation from the Corporation.

 

3.12          Interested Directors. No contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association, or other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are directors or officers, or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the Board of Directors or committee thereof which authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because his or their votes are counted for such purpose, if (i) the material facts as to his or their relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board of Directors or the committee, and the Board of Directors or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum; or (ii) the material facts as to his or their relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or (iii) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified, by the Board of Directors, a committee thereof or the stockholders. Common or interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee which authorizes the contract or transaction.

 

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3.13            Meetings by Means of Teleconference or Videoconference. Members of the Board of Directors or any committee designed by the Board of Directors may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee of the Board of Directors by means of teleconference, videoconference or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this subsection shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

 

ARTICLE IV

 

OFFICERS

 

4.1            General. The officers of the Corporation shall be elected by the Board of Directors and may consist of: a Chairman of the Board, Vice Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, President, Secretary and Treasurer. The Board of Directors, in its discretion, may also elect one or more Vice Presidents (including Executive Vice Presidents and Senior Vice Presidents), Assistant Secretaries, Assistant Treasurers, a Controller and such other officers as in the judgment of the Board of Directors may be necessary or desirable. Any number of offices may be held by the same person and more than one person may hold the same office, unless otherwise prohibited by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. The officers of the Corporation need not be stockholders of the Corporation, nor need such officers be directors of the Corporation.

 

4.2            Election. The Board of Directors at its first meeting held after each annual meeting of stockholders shall elect the officers of the Corporation who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors; and all officers of the Corporation shall hold office until their successors are chosen and qualified, or until their earlier resignation or removal. Except as otherwise provided in this Article IV, any officer elected by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board of Directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors. The salaries of all officers who are directors of the Corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.

 

4.3            Voting Securities Owned by the Corporation. Powers of attorney, proxies, waivers of notice of meeting, consents and other instruments relating to securities owned by the Corporation may be executed in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation by the Chief Executive Officer or his or her designee, and any such officer may, in the name and on behalf of the Corporation, take all such action as any such officer may deem advisable to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of security holders of any corporation in which the Corporation may own securities and at any such meeting shall possess and may exercise any and all rights and powers incident to the ownership of such securities and which, as the owner thereof, the Corporation might have exercised and possessed if present. The Board of Directors may, by resolution, from time to time confer like powers upon any other person or persons.

 

4.4            Chief Executive Officer. Subject to the provisions of these Bylaws and to the direction of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer shall have ultimate authority for decisions relating to the general management and control of the affairs and business of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties and exercise such other powers which are or from time to time may be delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors or these Bylaws, all in accordance with basic policies as established by and subject to the oversight of the Board of Directors.

 

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4.5            Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall have general supervision, direction and control of the financial affairs of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties and exercise such other powers which are or from time to time may be delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors or these Bylaws, all in accordance with basic policies as established by and subject to the oversight of the Board of Directors. In the absence of a named Treasurer, the Chief Financial Officer shall also have the powers and duties of the Treasurer as hereinafter set forth and shall be authorized and empowered to sign as Treasurer in any case where such officer’s signature is required.

 

4.6            Vice Presidents. At the request of the Chief Executive Officer or in the absence of the Chief Executive Officer, or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, the Vice President or the Vice Presidents if there is more than one (in the order designated by the Board of Directors) shall perform the duties of the Chief Executive Officer, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon such office. Each Vice President shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors from time to time may prescribe. If there be no Vice President, the Board of Directors shall designate the officer of the Corporation who, in the absence of the Chief Executive Officer or in the event of the inability or refusal of such officer to act, shall perform the duties of such office, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon such office.

 

4.7            Secretary. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of stockholders and record all the proceedings thereat in a book or books to be kept for that purpose; the Secretary shall also perform like duties for the standing committees when required. The Secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer, under whose supervision the Secretary shall be. If the Secretary shall be unable or shall refuse to cause to be given notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, then any Assistant Secretary shall perform such actions. If there be no Assistant Secretary, then the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer may choose another officer to cause such notice to be given. The Secretary shall have custody of the seal of the Corporation and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, if there be one, shall have authority to affix the same to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by the signature of the Secretary or by the signature of any such Assistant Secretary. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the Corporation and to attest the affixing by his signature. The Secretary shall see that all books, reports, statements, certificates and other documents and records required by law to be kept or filed are properly kept or filed, as the case may be.

 

4.8            Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the Chief Executive Officer and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all his transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation. If required by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his control belonging to the Corporation.

 

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4.9            Assistant Secretaries. Except as may be otherwise provided in these Bylaws, Assistant Secretaries, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Secretary, and in the absence of the Secretary or in the event of his disability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Secretary, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Secretary.

 

4.10          Assistant Treasurers. Assistant Treasurers, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Treasurer, and in the absence of the Treasurer or in the event of his disability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Treasurer, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Treasurer. If required by the Board of Directors, an Assistant Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his control belonging to the Corporation.

 

4.11          Controller. The Controller shall establish and maintain the accounting records of the Corporation in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a consistent basis, maintain proper internal control of the assets of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or any Vice President of the Corporation may prescribe.

 

4.12          Other Officers. Such other officers as the Board of Directors may choose shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may delegate to any other officer of the Corporation the power to choose such other officers and to prescribe their respective duties and powers.

 

4.13          Vacancies. The Board of Directors shall have the power to fill any vacancies in any office occurring from whatever reason.

 

4.14          Resignations. Any officer may resign at any time by submitting his or her written resignation to the Corporation. Such resignation shall take effect at the time of its receipt by the Corporation, unless another time be fixed in the resignation, in which case it shall become effective at the time so fixed or unless the Corporation accepts such resignation at an earlier date. The acceptance of a resignation shall not be required to make it effective.

 

4.15          Removal. Subject to the provisions of any employment agreement approved by the Board of Directors, any officer of the Corporation may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors.

 

ARTICLE V

 

CAPITAL STOCK

 

5.1            Shares of Stock. Shares of stock in the Corporation may be issued and held in certificated or in uncertificated form. Stock certificates shall be signed, in the name of the Corporation, by (i) the Chief Executive Officer or a Vice President and (ii) the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Corporation, certifying the number of shares whose ownership is reflected by such certificate. Shares of capital stock held in uncertificated form shall be registered in a qualified Direct Registration Program. The Corporation shall deliver to stockholders who hold shares in uncertificated form, either directly or through the agency of its transfer agent, written statements that include the information required to be provided by applicable law.

 

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5.2            Signatures. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile, including, but not limited to, signatures of officers of the Corporation and countersignatures of a transfer agent or registrar. In case an officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

 

5.3            Lost Certificates. The Board of Directors may direct a new certificate or certificates to be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing such issue of a new certificate, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or his legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as the Board of Directors shall require and/or to give the Corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed.

 

5.4            Transfers. Stock of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by law and in these Bylaws. Transfers of stock shall be made on the books of the Corporation only by the person named in the certificate or by his attorney lawfully constituted in writing and upon the surrender of the certificate therefor, which shall be canceled before a new certificate shall be issued. Upon surrender to the Corporation or the transfer agent of the Corporation of a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignment or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the Corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transactions upon its books, unless the Corporation has a duty to inquire as to adverse claims with respect to such transfer which has not been discharged. The Corporation shall have no duty to inquire into adverse claims with respect to such transfer unless (a) the Corporation has received a written notification of an adverse claim at a time and in a manner which affords the Corporation a reasonable opportunity to act on it prior to the issuance of a new, reissued or re-registered share certificate and the notification identifies the claimant, the registered owner and the issue of which the share or shares is a part and provides an address for communications directed to the claimant; or (b) the Corporation has required and obtained, with respect to a fiduciary, a copy of a will, trust, indenture, articles of co-partnership, Bylaws or other controlling instruments, for a purpose other than to obtain appropriate evidence of the appointment or incumbency of the fiduciary, and such documents indicate, upon reasonable inspection, the existence of an adverse claim. The Corporation may discharge any duty of inquiry by any reasonable means, including notifying an adverse claimant by registered or certified mail at the address furnished by him or, if there be no such address, at his residence or regular place of business that the security has been presented for registration of transfer by a named person, and that the transfer will be registered unless within thirty days from the date of mailing the notification, either (a) an appropriate restraining order, injunction or other process issues from a court of competent jurisdiction; or (b) an indemnity bond, sufficient in the Corporation’s judgment to protect the Corporation and any transfer agent, registrar or other agent of the Corporation involved from any loss which it or they may suffer by complying with the adverse claim, is filed with the Corporation.

 

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5.5            Fixing Record Date. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, and, in relation to consents to corporate action in writing without a meeting, not more than ten (10) days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date of such action is adopted by the Board of Directors. If no record date is fixed:

 

  (a)            The record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.

 

  (b)            The record date for determining stockholders entitled to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the Board of Directors is necessary, shall be fourteen (14) days from the first date on which the Corporate Secretary is notified in writing that such an action is proposed or, if no such notice is given, thirty (30) days from the first date on which a signed written consent is delivered to the Corporation.

 

  (c)            The record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

 

A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

 

5.6            Registered Stockholders. Prior to due presentment for transfer of any share or shares, the Corporation shall treat the registered owner thereof as the person exclusively entitled to vote, to receive notifications and to all other benefits of ownership with respect to such share or shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of the State Delaware.

 

ARTICLE VI

 

NOTICES AND COMMUNICATIONS

 

6.1            Form of Notice. Notices to directors and stockholders other than notices to directors of special meetings of the Board of Directors which may be given by any means stated in Section 3.4, shall be in writing and delivered personally or mailed to the directors or stockholders at their addresses appearing on the books of the Corporation. Notice by mail shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be mailed. Notice to directors may also be given by telegram.

 

6.2            Waiver of Notice. Whenever any notice is required to be given under the provisions of law or the Certificate of Incorporation or by these Bylaws of the Corporation, a written waiver, signed by the person or persons entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular, or special meeting of the stockholders, Directors, or members of a committee of Directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation.

 

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6.3            Communications with Stockholders. Any notices, statements or other communications to or with stockholders of any kind required or permitted under the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws or applicable law (whether from the Corporation, the Board of Directors or any stockholder) may be sent, delivered or made available in any reasonable manner if not otherwise prescribed or prohibited by applicable law, including, without limitation, by email or other electronic means or by posting on a website; and such communications shall comply with the requirements of any applicable securities law or regulation and may be sent, delivered or otherwise made available to stockholders in accordance with house holding or other similar rules under which a single copy of such communication may be sent to stockholders who reside at the same address.

 

ARTICLE VII

 

INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

 

7.1            The Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation) by reason of the fact that he is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if he acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was unlawful.

 

7.2            The Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party, or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that he is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another Corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if he acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation and except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

 

7.3            To the extent that a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in Sections 7.1 or 7.2, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, he shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection therewith.

 

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7.4            Any indemnification under Sections 7.1 or 7.2 (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the Corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the director, officer, employee or agent is proper in the circumstances because he has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in such section. Such determination shall be made:

 

  (a)            By the Board of Directors by a majority vote of a quorum consisting of directors who were not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, or

 

  (b)            If such a quorum is not obtainable, or, even if obtainable a quorum of disinterested directors so directs, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, or

 

  (c)            By the stockholders.

 

7.5            Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by an officer or director in defending any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding may be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that he is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized in this Section. Such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by other employees and agents may be so paid upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the Board of Directors deems appropriate.

 

7.6            The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to the other sections of this Article VII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under any bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in his official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office.

 

7.7            The Corporation shall have power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another Corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against him and incurred by him in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify him against such liability under the provisions of this Article VII.

 

7.8            For purposes of this Article VII, references to “the Corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting Corporation, any constituent Corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, and employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer employee or agent of such constituent Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another Corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under this Article VII with respect to the resulting or surviving Corporation as he would have with respect to such constituent Corporation of its separate existence had continued.

 

7.9            For purposes of this Article VII, references to “other enterprises” shall include employee benefit plans; references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to any employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the Corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee, or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation” as referred to in this Article VII.

 

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7.10          The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VII shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

 

7.11          No director or officer of the Corporation shall be personally liable to the Corporation or to any stockholder of the Corporation for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director or officer, provided that this provision shall not limit the liability of a director or officer (i) for any breach of the director’s or the officer’s duty of loyalty to the Corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director or officer derived an improper personal benefit.

 

ARTICLE VIII

 

GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

8.1            Reliance on Books and Records. Each Director, each member of any committee designated by the Board of Directors, and each officer of the Corporation, shall, in the performance of his duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books of account or other records of the Corporation, including reports made to the Corporation by any of its officers, by an independent certified public accountant, or by an appraiser selected with reasonable care.

 

8.2            Dividends. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, dividends upon the capital stock of the Corporation may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting, pursuant to law. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, or for such other purpose as the Directors shall think conducive to the interest of the Corporation, and the Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.

 

8.3            Annual Statement. The Chief Executive Officer or his designee shall present at each annual meeting, and at any special meeting of the stockholders when called for by vote of the stockholders, a full and clear statement of the business and condition of the Corporation.

 

8.4            Checks. All checks or demands for money and notes of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

 

8.5            Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be as determined by the Board of Directors.

 

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8.6            Seal. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name of the Corporation, the year of its organization and the words “Corporate Seal, Delaware”. The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any manner reproduced.

 

8.7            Forum. Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, either the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or the federal courts of the District of Delaware shall be the exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (ii) any action asserting a claim for breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in each case subject to said court having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants therein. For any other action regarding these Bylaws, the state courts of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in and for Philadelphia County or the federal courts of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania shall be the exclusive forum for such action.

 

8.8            Amendments. The original or other Bylaws may be adopted, amended or repealed by the stockholders entitled to vote thereon at any regular or special meeting or by the Board of Directors, as provided herein and in the Certificate of Incorporation. The fact that such power has been so conferred upon the Board of Directors shall not divest the stockholders of the power nor limit their power to adopt, amend or repeal Bylaws.

 

8.9            Interpretation of Bylaws. All words, terms and provisions of these Bylaws shall be interpreted and defined by and in accordance with the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as amended, and as amended from time to time hereafter.

 

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